Guide Dictionary of Histopathology

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Leukocytes without prominent granules; specifically lymphocytes and monocytes Alpha cell 1. Pancreatic islet cell which secrete glucagon 2. Cell type in the anterior pituitary, also called acidophil Alveolar cell Cell of the pulmonary alveoli Alveolar duct Passageway which contains alveolar sacs Alveolar sac Region at the end of an alveolar duct; airspace Alveolus 1.

Microscopic sac in the lung 2. Spherical sac Amacrine cells Interneurons in the retina Ameloblast Cell which makes tooth enamel Ampulla A saccular swelling Antrum Fluid filled space surrounding follicle Apocrine gland A type of sweat gland found in the axilla, anogenital region, external auditory meatus and eyelid APUD Amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation Argentaffin cells Also called enterochromaffin cells; found in glands of the gastrointestinal tract; stain with silver salt Argyrophilic cell Small granule cell or dense core granule cell Arrector pili Smooth muscle associated with a hair follicle Arteriole Part of the arterial tree; a small artery with a diameter less than.

Cell in the cerebellar cortex 2. Myoepithelial cell Basophil 1. Type of granulocyte with prominent basophilic granules 2. Glandular cell in the pituitary Basophilia 1.

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An increase number of basophils in the peripheral circulation 2. Tissues property of staining with basic dyes Beta cell 1.

Pancreatic islet cell which secretes insulin 2. Cell type in the anterior pituitary, also called basophil Betz cells Pyramidal cells in the motor area of the brain Bipolar neuron Neuron with only two processes: an axon and a dendrite Bowman's capsule Portion of the uriniferous tubule; double layered portion surrounding the glomeruli Bowman's membrane The basement membrane of the corneal epithelium Bronchiole Small branch of the bronchial tree which contains no cartilage in the wall Bruch's membrane The inner layer of the choroid; also called lamina vitrea Brunner's gland Glands found in the submucosa of the duodenum which have an alkaline secretion Brush border Microvilli seen on the epithelial surface in the small intestine which significantly increases the absorptive surface area.

Also known as Canale-Smith Syndrome. This is a rare, genetic lymphoproliferative disorder that affects lymphocyte apoptosis.

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This is a rare type of leukemia where most of the blasts are megakaryoblastic. A form of cancer characterized by the presence of too many immature granulocytes in the bone marrow and blood. ANA Antinuclear Antibodies. High levels of ANAs can trigger the body to begin attacking itself, leading to autoimmune diseases. Anaplastic Cancer cells that proliferate quickly and unlike normal cells. Too many immature white blood cells are present in the blood and bone marrow. Antigen A foreign substance that results in the body triggering an immune response. This is a form of AML in which excess amounts of promyelocytes immature white blood cells are found in bone marrow.


Archived Tumor Sample Tumor sample preserved and stored through common processes. This is a cancer that usually affects the skeletal cells in the trunk, arms, and legs. Aromatase Inhibitor Medication that inhibits the aromatase enzyme, resulting in decreased levels of estrogen in the body. This is a rare soft-tissue sarcoma typically found in children and young adults. ASPS is extremely uncommon and grows very slowly, making early detection difficult.

This is a very aggressive thyroid cancer. BC Breast Cancer. A common cancer that affects women and may rarely affect men. There are several types of breast cancer, and symptoms usually include a lump found in breast tissue or a change to the shape or texture of the breast. BCC is a type of skin cancer that creates lesions and uncontrolled growth in the basal cells of the epidermis.

This is a neurological condition in which the eyelid spasms uncontrollably, forcing it to close. The cause of the spasms is unknown. Biomarker A biomarker may indicate the presence of a substance that can identify a particular disease or state of infection, as well as give information about the characteristics of a disease. See also: Cluster of differentiation. BM Bone Marrow. Bone Marrow is the tissue found within bones.

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The production of red blood cells and lymphocytes is among the many vital functions of bone marrow. BRCA1 and BRCA2 These genes typically assist in regulating cell growth, and mutations of these genes are the most well-known genes linked to breast and ovarian cancer development. BT Brain Tumor. The causes of a brain tumor are usually unknown, but both benign and malignant tumors can be life-threatening if not treated promptly. Bx Biopsy. C Ca Cancer; carcinoma. Cancer is a disease in which some cells begin to replicate uncontrollably and spread into surrounding tissues.

Cancer Staging Assigning a scale number to describe the spreading of a cancer. See Pathologic or Histologic Grade for more information.

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Carcinoma in situ A cluster of abnormal cells which have not spread from the tissue of origin nor invaded the basement membrane. These are slow-growing tumors located in the neck where the large carotid artery branches apart. These rare tumors are not life-threatening, but may eventually lead to damage to surrounding nerves and blood vessels. CBTs are also known as a chemodectoma or paraganglioma. This is a chronic condition in which the heart is functioning at sub-normal efficiency. CD Cluster of Differentiation.

This is a protocol used for the identification and investigation of cell surface molecules providing targets for the immunophenotyping of cells. CEA Carcinoembryonic Antigen. These are glycoproteins, produced during fetal development, involved in cell adhesion. This is a complication in X-Linked Agammaglobulinemia patients, and may be caused by viruses that attack that Central Nervous System. A slow-progressing disease of the blood and bone marrow in which too many granulocytes are produced.

This is also known as Chronic Myeloid Leukemia. Chemotherapy Treating cancer cells through the use of cytotoxic drugs. This treatment may be used alongside surgery, or with alternative treatment options.

Glossary of Medical Terms - Pathology and Laboratory Medicine - Western University

Chromosome A structure found in the nucleus of a cell which carries genetic information. CIN usually does not require treatment, but a small portion of cases may progress to cancer. CIN is also known as cervical dysplasia. CIS is a cluster of abnormal cells that does not spread beyond its tissue of origin. There is debate over whether or not CIS is classified as cancer, however, it is agreed that these cells have the potential to become cancerous.

This is a type of leukemia that affects cells designated to be white blood cells in the bone marrow, which then move into the blood steam. These federal regulatory standards govern clinical laboratory testing conducted on humans in the United States were established in Clinically Validated Ensuring that a procedure, data, or test is correct. This is an immune response to an antigen that actives T-lymphocytes and phagocytes. Also known as chronic myelogenous leukemia. CMV Cytomegalovirus. This is a common virus that, once affected, lasts a lifetime.

It is a genus in the order Herpesvirales.

Multiple disjoint dictionaries for representation of histopathology images

COD Cause of Death. Colectomy Surgical removal of damaged colon tissue. Colitis An inflamed colon, which may be present in many forms. Colon Polyp A fleshy clump of cells that grow on the inside lining of the colon. Colonoscopy An exam conducted to view the conditions of the inside of the colon through the use of a small fiber-optic scope.

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Common Rule CFR The Common Rule is a set of federal regulations governing patient protection for research conducted with federal funds, or at sites supported with federal funds. Consent Consent is a crucial regulatory aspect of specimen collection and use. Biorepositories must demonstrate that donors have given informed consent for the samples they donate.

IRBs typically establish ethical guidelines for how tissues are collected and used. Core Biopsy The procedure which obtains a cylindrical tissue sample through the use of a hollow needle, usually used to test for breast cancer. CPC is located in ventricles and increases cerebrospinal fluid, which may result in hydrocephalus. CRC Colorectal Carninoma. An organization that performs research services on a contractual basis.